Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện | Định nghĩa, công thức & bài tập

Câu điều kiện thường xuất hiện rất nhiều trong các bài thi anh văn từ cấp 2, cấp 3 cho đến những bài thi TOEIC, IELTS. Không chỉ hiểu cấu trúc đơn thuần về câu điều kiện mà bạn còn cần nắm rõ những trường hợp đảo ngữ của chúng mà thường dễ bị mắc sai lầm trong thi cử. Bài viết sau đây VerbaLearn sẽ tổng hợp kiến thức đầy đủ nhất ở các dạng đảo ngữ câu điều kiện trong tiếng anh từ cơ bản đến nâng cao.

Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện là gì?

Cấu trúc câu điều kiện thông thường có “if” ở đầu đều ở mức cơ bản trong tiếng anh. Vì thế để nâng cao ngữ pháp mà đảo ngữ xuất hiện như một cách thức trao đổi vị trí giữa chủ ngữ và động từ trong câu nhằm khẳng định, nhấn mạnh ý nghĩa diễn đạt.

Hình thức nhận biết các câu điều kiện đảo ngữ là “if” không xuất hiện thay vào đó là các từ ngữ như “should”, “were” hay “had”. Vì thế để tránh hiểu sai nghĩa của hình thức đảo ngữ này dưới đây sẽ là các cấu trúc câu điều kiện từ loại 1,2 và 3.

Cấu trúc đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 1

Mệnh đề đảo ngữ trong câu điều kiện loại 1 diễn tả trạng thái trang trọng, lịch sự, nhã nhặn hơn nhằm đưa ra những lời khuyên, yêu cầu, tư vấn hoặc thậm chí là nhờ vả.

Cấu trúc: Should + S + (not) Vinf, S + will + Vinf

E.g. If I have a lot of money, I will buy lots of nice clothes.

→ Should I have a lot of money, I will buy lots of nice clothes.

E.g. If you try to work, you will soon be employed as a full-time employee of the company.

→ Should you try to work, you will soon be employed as a full-time employee of the company.

Cấu trúc đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 2

Câu điều kiện loại 2 thường mang nghĩa về sự áp đặt đưa ra lời khuyên cứng rắn cho người khác. Khi ở hình thức đảo ngữ thì ý nghĩa được giảm nhẹ, thể hiện sự tôn trọng, tế nhị trong lời nói, hạn chế sự áp đặt.

Cấu trúc if ở câu điều kiện loại 2 luôn dùng động từ tobe là “were” không có trường hợp nào xài “was”, vì thế ở thể đảo ngữ cấu trúc cũng tương tự chỉ đảo động từ “were” lên đầu câu thay cho “if”.

Cấu trúc: Were + S + Object/ sth hoặc (not) to Verb, S + would/could + Vinf.

E.g. If I were you, I would not behave in such a polite manner in front of my boss.

→ Were I you, I would not behave in such a polite manner in front of my boss.

E.g. If I studied at a prestigious university, I would have the opportunity to work abroad.

→ Were I to study a prestigious university, I would have the opportunity to work abroad.

Cấu trúc đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại 3

Cấu trúc: Had + S + (not) V3/ed, S + would have + V3/ed

E.g. If she had tried more practice, she would have won that competition.

→ Had she tried more practice, she would have won that competition.

E.g. If he hadn’t given up early, he would have been successful in the business.

→ Had he not given up early, he would have been successful in the business.

Cấu trúc đảo ngữ câu điều kiện loại hỗn hợp

(Mixed Conditional Sentence)

Cấu trúc: Had + S + (not) V3/ed, S + would/could + V

E.g. If I hadn’t lost her car, she wouldn’t be sad right now.

→ Had I not lost her car, she wouldn’t be sad right now.

Bài tập đảo ngữ câu điều kiện

Dạng 1: Viết lại các câu sử dụng đảo ngữ

1. If you plant seeds on the ground, you will have a beautiful garden of flowers

2. If it snows, we will have to reschedule tomorrow.

3. If you treat people around you well, you will feel happy in your heart.

4. If you try to nurture your dream, you will accomplish it in the future.

5. If it rains, we will have to cancel the concert today.

6. If you love someone sincerely, you will receive that love again.

7. If she has a headache, she will see a doctor for treatment.

8. If you agree to join my birthday party, I will feel very happy.

9. If he refused the confession, she would feel very sad.

10. If I successfully complete the project, I will receive a great bonus from the company.

11. If she tries to cross this mountain, she will win the competition.

12. If I didn’t skip meals, I wouldn’t feel hungry like this.

13. If Jack had invested his business, he would have made a big profit from it.

14. If Irene didn’t ruin the script yesterday, she would have had a chance to memorize it all

15. If Kate is a rich child, she will travel all over the world.

16. If she left the current company, it would be difficult for her to find such a good company.

17. If he had listened to me explain, he wouldn’t have ruined this new computer software.

18. If I have a chance to go back to the past, I will do the right and meaningful things.

19. If Mary gave in to the argument, she would have left a good impression on her boss’ heart.

20. If you believe in success, then you will have a chance to achieve it in the future.

-→

21. If he loved me, he wouldn’t leave me to live in New York.

22. If she hates me, she won’t help me complete this project.

23. If Lisa studied hard for the exam, she would not fail.

24. If I were a bird, I would have flown to the lands I like.

25. If you were me, you wouldn’t be able to stand this pain.

26. If your boyfriend is a good person, he will not hit you in arguments.

27. If you didn’t just teach me the secret to the competition, I wouldn’t be the champion.

28. If Jane is passionate about the job, she will not find it difficult to do it.

29. If he is healthy, he can carry this table out.

30. If you hadn’t been my motivation, I wouldn’t have been able to overcome this terrible disease.

Đáp án

1. Should you plant seeds on the ground, you will have a beautiful garden of flowers.

2.  Should it snow, we will have to reschedule tomorrow.

3. Should you treat people around you well, you will feel happy in your heart.

4. Should you try to nurture your dream, you will accomplish it in the future.

5. Should it rain, we will have to cancel the concert today.

6. Should you love someone sincerely, you will receive that love again.

7. Should she have a headache, she will see a doctor for treatment.

8. Should you agree to join my birthday party, I will feel very happy.

9. Were he to refuse the confession, she would feel very sad.

10. Should I successfully complete the project, I will receive a great bonus from the company.

11. Should she try to cross this mountain, she will win the competition.

12. Were I not to skip meals, I wouldn’t feel hangry like this.

13. Had Jack invested his business, he would have made a big profit from it.

14. Were Irene not to ruin the script yesterday, she would have had a chance to memorize it all.

15. Should Kate be a rich child, she will travel all over the world.

16. Were she to leave the current company, it would be difficult for her to find such a good company.

17. Had he listened to me explain, he wouldn’t have runied the new computer software.

18. Should I have a chance to go back to the past, I will do the right and meaningful things.

19. Were Mary to give in to the argument, she would have left a good impression on her boss’ heart.

20. Should you believe in success, then you will have a chance to achieve it in the future.

21. Were he to love me, he wouldn’t leave me to live in Nwe York.

22. Should she to hate me, she won’t help me complete this project.

23. Were Lisa to study hard for the exam, she would not fail.

24. Were I a bird, I would have flown to the lands I like.

25. Were you me, you wouldn;t be able to stand this pain,

26. Should your boyfriend be a good person, he will not hit you in arguments.

27. Were you not just to teach me the secret to the competition, I wouldn’t be the champion.

28. Should Jane be passionate about the job, she will not find it difficult to do it.

29. Should he be healthy, he can carry this table out.

30. Had you not been my motivation, I wouldn’t have been able to overcome this terrible disease.

Bài tập 2: Chọn đáp án trắc nghiệm đúng nhất

1. ______ Jackson successfully completes the company’s project, he will have a chance to be promoted.

A. Should B. Were C. Had D. Unless

2. ______ she not lied about the accident, she would not have been suspected of the culprit in the case.

A. Should B. Were C. Had D. if

3. ______ I a naughty student, I would not propose strengthening school discipline.

A. Should B. Were C. Had D. if

4. ______ he truly to desire this position, he would never give up on any chance.

A. Had B. Should C. if D. Were

5. ______ I have an idea for a topic this time, I won’t ask you to.

A. Should B. Had C. if D. If not

6. ______ she to handle everything well, then she wouldn’t come to us for help.

A. Were B. Had C. Were not D. if

7. ______ he listened to his instructor, he wouldn’t have lost his way in the forest.

A. Were B. should C. Unless D. Had

8. ______ Jenny accept the challenge this time, then she will have a chance to become a full-time Google employee.

A. Were B. Had C. Should D. if

9. ______ my friend not been able to speak in public, I wouldn’t have been a teacher for 10 years.

A. Should B. Had C. Should D. Unless

10. ______ you be truly competent, then you don’t need to worry about your future work.

A. Had B. Were C. Should D. if

Thông qua những tổng hợp kiến thức, cấu trúc cũng như kèm theo các bài tập ứng dụng thực tế đầy đủ các dạng đảo ngữ trong câu điều kiện. Bạn sẽ nắm rõ và hệ thống ôn tập tiếng anh cho mình thật phù hợp. Hy vọng bài viết trên sẽ giúp ích cho bạn củng cố kiến thức, xin cảm ơn.

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